We answer your questions
Paternity DNA Test for Personal Use
- Quality: DNAlogy laboratories are accredited by the National Accreditation System (ESYD) (cert. no 892-2) in accordance with Quality Standard ΕΝ ISO/ΙEC 17025:2017 for all DNA testing of biological relationship (1st to 6th degree relationship) and for all forensic DNA analyses (detection of biological material, DNA analysis and profiling). In addition, the laboratories of DNAlogy successfully participate every year in the international proficiency tests run by the German GENDNAP committee and in the annual inter-laboratory exercises run by the International Society for Forensic Genetics – Groupe Francophone and the International Society for Forensic Genetics – English Speaking Working Group.
- High standards: The procedures implemented by the DNAlogy laboratories for sample analysis are automated and carried out using robotic systems thereby minimising human error and ensuring fast, valid and economical solutions. All DNAlogy personnel, both administrative and laboratory, have completed post-graduate and doctoral studies, so that you may rest assure that your samples are dealt with responsible and in a scientifically sound manner, in and out of the lab.
- Confidentiality and discretion: At DNAlogy, DNA testing is carried out with the utmost confidentiality and discretion ensuring that results are confidential. When samples are received, they are marked with a unique barcode, which follows them throughout the analysis, this maintaining their full anonymity.
- Sample collection from saliva: Collection of the biological material is carried out by rubbing the inside of the cheek using special swabs. In contrast with blood sample collection that is painful and invasive, saliva sampling is a simple, fast, painless and most importantly non-invasive procedure.
- Reliability: By using for the analyses 17-41 internationally recognised genetic markers (STRs) and carrying out each stage based on international scientific standards and rules, DNAlogy guarantees absolute reliability and validity in your results.
For more information click here.
DNAlogy offers 2 different and equally reliable paternity DNA tests.
Paternity DNA Test for Personal Use when seeking genetic proof of a child’s paternity for personal reasons. Collection of biological material can be carried out either in the DNAlogy laboratories by the staff or by you at home, as this test does not require specialised staff. The samples are then sent to us. Participation of the mother in the DNA test for personal use is desirable but optional. You can obtain the sample collection kit DNAlogy-Patrotis-kit® from your nearest pharmacy in our network or via our eshop.
Paternity DNA Test for Court use to provide legal proof of or exclude paternity. In this case collection of biological material is carried out compulsorily by our centre’s Court Experts (or another person designated by us, e.g. lawyer, biopathologist, etc). If the child is a minor the participation of the mother is required. DNAlogy can represent you before Greek or European courts to explain the results, if necessary, thanks to the international scientific team of Experts.
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50% of each person’s DNA comes for their biological father, an 50% from their biological mother. Each paternity DNA test checks at least 17 genetic markers, and of each genetic marker, a person has 2 copies (alleles), one of paternal and one of maternal origin. If the test shows that the child has alleles that are not the same with the alleged father’s, then the likelihood of paternity is fully ruled out (100%). If the test shows that the child has alleles that are identical to the father’s, then the likelihood of paternity is calculated mathematically based on the frequency of these alleles in the general population. In case of identification of paternity, DNAlogy delivers results with a >99.99% probability of paternity.
The results report you will receive has been drafted by the specialist experts of our laboratories and includes the genetic profiles of participants based on which the conclusion is reached, ruling out paternity of the father being tested or not.
a) If in all genetic markers there are common genetic elements between the child and the tested father, then paternity cannot be ruled out and the probability of paternity is estimated statistically (>99,99%).
b) If there are genetic markers (>3) in which there are no common genetic elements between the child and the tested father, then the probability of paternity is fully ruled out.
c) In case there are no common genetic elements in ≤3 markers, then the possibility of a mutation is considered by repeating the test and examining more genetic markers. Depending on the result, then the probability of paternity is either fully ruled out or estimated statistically taking into account the frequency of the mutations observed.
The validity of results delivered by DNAlogy is 100%. By using for the analyses 17 to 41 internationally recognised genetic markers (STRs), depending on the requirements of each case, and carrying out each stage based on international standards, DNAlogy guarantees absolute reliability in your results.
Yes, as long as there is genetic material (e.g. tissue) or an object from which we could detect and isolated the person’s DNA to be tested. Such objects could be a tooth brush, clothes, underwear, cigarette butts, hand-written notes, hairs with their roots, nails, biopsies, etc, or even bones.
If the family does not have a sample of the alleged father’s biological material, the paternity DNA test can be performed indirectly, by testing persons related to the father (relationship DNA testing for siblings/grandfather-grandomother/uncle-aunts etc).
The paternity DNA test can be carried out with complete safety in the infant right after birth, as sampling of biological material is performed in the inside of the cheek using a sterile swab. The infant’s buccal cavity must be clear of human or other milk, meconium and amniotic fluid.
Yes. Every participant can obtain the DNAlogy–Patrotis–kit® from the nearest pharmacy or contact our laboratories to have the kit delivered to any address. After sampling, the participants will send their samples separately to the laboratory for analysis.
Participation of the mother in the paternity DNA test does not change the result; it does increase its accuracy. This is because the child’s DNA can be fully matched to both parents instead of being half matched to the tested father.
Mother’s participation is required in the DNA test for legal use, while optional albeit desirable for DNA tests for personal use.
When 2 persons that are biologically related (full siblings or father-child) claim paternity of the same child, there is a chance that false positive results might arise, as such persons show high degree of similarity in their genetic material. If there is a probability that the biological father of a child is a 1st or 2nd degree relative of the tested father, then this probability must be reported to the laboratory, so as to choose the appropriate approach to safely solve the case. In these cases, the following choices are recommended:
Choice 1: Testing both related individuals as to the probability of paternity and/or the child’s mother.
Choice 2: Testing a greater number of genetic markers for the tested father and/or the child’s mother, if the other person is not available.
For more information please contact our lab’s experts.
You can obtain the DNAlogy-Patrotis-kit® in three ways:
- Find the Nearest Pharmacy of our network selling sample collection kits.
- Order the sample collection kit on our e-shop.
- Visit the DNAlogy laboratories at Vouliagmenis Avenue 98, Glyfada, to obtain the kit and talk to our scientists/experts.
The procedure of saliva sample collection is simple, fast, painless and non-invasive. Every pack contains swabs for 2 persons. For more information click εδώ.
Your results will be ready in 5-7 working days from the day we receive the samples. Alternatively, you may opt for an EXPRESS procedure, and receive your results in 2-3 working days. In any case, to begin the analysis, an advance payment of 50% of the total cost is required.
No. The DNAlogy–Patrotis–kit® is for personal use and is not admissible in court or have any legal validity, as the procedure does not include profiling of participants by our laboratories’ specialist experts. Contact us for more information about the paternity DNA test for legal use.
Myth: Until today the notion that blood is more reliable in DNA testing aiming at establishing biological relationship is prevalent. This is just a myth, which has arisen due to the fact that blood is commonly used in lab tests.
Truth: All the cells in our body (except red blood cells that do not have a nucleus) contain the same genetic information. Whether we use blood or saliva or any other tissue or fluid (hairs, nails, bodily fluids), the result of a DNA test is equally reliable.
Advantages of using saliva: At DNAlogy we have developed and we are using in all our genetic analyses an innovative DNA extraction protocol from buccal swab samples, thus offering a sampling procedure that is simple, fast, painless, non-invasive, which allows easy transfer and storage of samples (>20 years, room temperature). Buccal swabs can be collected by non-specialist staff and can be performed by the participants at their place.
Generally, there is no time limitation from the collection of samples until their analysis, as long as you follow the basic guidelines for collection and storage. In all cases you should avoid touching the samples with your bare hands and you should keep the samples away from sunlight, high temperature and humidity. For liquid samples, follow the directions for drying. For more information about collecting and storing samples, click here or επικοινωνήστε our team of experts.
A paternity DNA test for personal use with samples taken from both participants (father and child) costs 299 Euros and you can obtain it in two ways:
A) From our partner Pharmacies: the DNAlogy-Patrotis-kit® can be bought for 29 Euros from the pharmacy and then sample analysis in our lab costs 270 Euros.
Β) On our e-shop : Order the sampling kit on our e-shop and receive the DNAlogy-Patrotis-kit® on the next working day.
The price changes if more participants are added to the paternity test or alternative samples are used (nails, hairs, tooth brushes, chewing gum, etc).
Do you need a paternity test for legal use? Click here.
In cases where saliva samples cannot be collected (e.g. from persons no longer in life) alternatively samples can be used which contain the biological material of the person to be tested. Such samples are tooth brushes, nails, clothes, underwear, cigarette butts, chewing gum, glasses, cutlery, tissues, biopsies, bones, hand-written notes, etc. For more information about how to collect alternative samples click here or contact our team of experts.
Non-invasive antenatal paternity testing
Non-invasive antenatal paternity testing involves taking biological material from the embryo during pregnancy via the mother’s blood, replacing outdated invasive and risky sampling procedures such as amniocentesis. This method is absolutely safe to both child and mother. Testing is carried out using detection of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Non-invasive antenatal paternity testing is carried out during pregnancy using just a blood sample of the mother. The embryo’s genetic material circulates in the mother’s blood, and it can be separated from the mother’s material and used in paternity testing. A sample from the father is also required for this test.
The method of SNP detection that is used in the non-invasive antenatal paternity testing is an advanced method that ensures validity of results. In case of a negative result, the likelihood of paternity is completely ruled out; in the opposite case, paternity is identified with a likelihood of >99%.
The most common reason for carrying out a paternity DNA test during pregnancy is to eliminate all doubt on the child’s biological father; knowing this can be particularly important for legal issues and social benefits.
The results of the antenatal paternity test can be used in court provided that the participants have been profiled by our lab’s experts. Participation of the mother is required to profile the embryo via profiling the mother.
None. The test results only include information arising from paternity testing, that is the genetic profiles of participants (with our without a reference to sex) and the likelihood of paternity.
At DNAlogy we perform DNA profiling to test biological relationship up to the 6th degree: DNA testing of paternity–maternity, siblings–twins, grandfather–grandmother, uncle-aunt etc. Our labs have all the modern scientific tools needed to solve even the most complex cases of biological relationship testing.
In addition, all types of evidence can be tested, as collected during the course of an investigation (forensic evidence, tooth brushes, nails, cigarette butts, clothes, underwear, etc), to detect biological material and determine its nature (saliva, blood, semen), as well as its genetic profiling for personal or court/criminal cases.
Every person’s DNA is the basis of their existence, the programme to be followed to create life
Each person’s DNA is unique and distinguishes them from any other person. Among the gene regions that code for our physical characteristics, which are quite similar in all persons, there are non-coding regions that do not carry any information and which are highly polymorphic. By studying 17, at least, such regions, we can create the “Genetic Profile” of a person, which makes them unique on earth.
à To create a unique genetic profile testing of internationally recognised genetic markers is required.
For more information click here.
NO! DNAlogy does not disclose any information to third parties without your permission or order. Your samples are used only to conduct the analyses described in the order form completed by the customer, and after 2 months both the results and any leftover samples are destroyed.
ATTENTION: After the lapse of 2 months, recovery of your results/and or samples is no longer possible.