ΕUROPEAN CENTER FOR GENETICS & DNA IDENTIFICATION

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSIS
DNAlogy
Instructions
INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUCCAL CELL COLLECTION: DNALOGY-KIT
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In the course of sampling, DNAlogy offers you free-of charge the DNAlogy-kit including the sterilized cotton swab, sampling instructions and a consent/order form for the applicant.
The aim of sampling is to collect as many cheek cells as possible and to transfer them to the sterilized cotton swab, which is going to protect DNA until its transfer to our laboratory.
Attention: Avoid any contact with the cotton tip end of the swabs.
Do not eat, drink or smoke for at least 30 minutes before sampling.
For the sampling procedure, each individual should use 2 swabs.

Step 1
Label the collection tube of swab with the code "Sample 1" and the sampling date.

Step 2
Carefully open the first collection tube by holding the red plastic handle end and carefully remove the sterile swab for buccal cell collection.

Step 3
Sampling: Holding the red plastic handle end of swab, place the cotton tip of the swab inside the cheek and rub it firmly in every direction several times (20 seconds in each cheek). Repeat steps 1-3 with the second collection tube with the code "Sample 1".

Step 4
Air dry the swabs for at least 3 hours (no less) at room temperature while keeping them protected from any source of contamination. When dry, place the swabs back in the collection tubes.

Step 5
Place the two collection tubes containing the biological material to be analyzed in the reply envelope and send it back to DNAlogy along with the completed Consent Form.


MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSIS

 

DNAlogy is the first Greek laboratory that offers mitochondrial DNA analysis

For many years, only nuclear DNA was studied, until Anderson in 1981 published the full sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is located in small organelles called mitochondria. Mitochondria are very resistant/stable and there may be hundreds or thousands of mitochondria in most eukaryotic cells. Mt DNA is different from nuclear DNA.

Mitochondria are inherited only from the mother, and thus all maternal offspring (brothers, sisters, nephews or cousins of the mother) will have the same mitochondrial DNA and it cannot be distinguished.

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA is performed by typing two highly variable (polymorphic) regions (HV1 and HV2) where the genetic code is (the sequence of bases A, T, C, G) is approximately 600 nucleotides long. The identified DNA sequence is compared with Anderson’s reference sequence allowing for the identification and characterization of possible sequence changes (mutations).

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA is used:
1)When Nuclear DNA analysis is not possible (insufficient quality or quantity)
2)For the identification of bodies where the organic material has been degraded by decomposition, in the analysis of very old bones or in analysis with very little organic material
3)When hair samples with no root are available

Mitochondrial DNA is less informative than nuclear DNA. On the other hand, mitochondrial DNA is present in a much greater quantity than nuclear DNA and is more resistant.